Buy Mulungu Powder
Erythrina mulungu is a medicinal plant native to the cerrado and caatinga regions in northern Brazil.Mulungu has been used by indigenous peoples in the Amazon for centuries as medicines, insecticides and fish poisons.
buy mulungu powder
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This plant is best prepared as a decoction. Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Bring to a boil and gently boil in a covered pot for 20 minutes. Allow to cool and settle for 10 minutes and strain warm liquid into a cup (leaving the settled powder in the bottom of the pan). It is traditionally taken in 1/2 cup amounts twice daily.
To prepare a decoction of Mulungu, 1 tsp. of the powdered bark is used for each 8 oz. of water. Using medium-high heat, bring water to a boil in an open ceramic pot and then add the powder. Reduce the heat to medium-low and place the lid on the pot. Allow the mixture to simmer for 20 minutes. Pour the mixture through a fine strainer and allow it to cool for a time before drinking. Refrigerate unused portions in a well sealed container.
Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu) is native to many parts of the South America. It's the highest quality organic herb you will find in powder form. This is the powdered variety. Making it an extremely convenient.
There are over one hundred species of plants of the genus Erythrina in the tropics and many of them are native to the American continent (Neill 1988). Erythrina species are known to produce alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes (Garcia-Mateos et al., 1998). As with other species of Erythrina, alkaloids appear to be one of the main constituents mulungu (Parsons and Palframan, 2010). Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu) is a branched tree native to Brazil, growing in rain-forestry of Amazonia. Since its flowers are the same red color as coral, the plant is sometimes also called "flor de coral" and in English literature "coral tree". The designation Erythrina also includes the species Erythrina velutina, endemic to the semi-arid regions of Northeastern Brazil, and Erythrina mulungu, a plant native to Southern Brazil.
In native herbal medicine, a leaf or bark decoction or tincture from mulungu has long been used in folk medicine due to their tranquilizing effects and as natural sedative. It is also anxiolytic and antibacterial (Garín-Aguilar et al., 2000). In both Brazil and Peru mulungu is used for epilepsy (Vasconcelos et al., 2007). Practitioners in the United States use mulungu to quiet hysteria from trauma or shock, as a mild sedative to calm the nervous system, to treat insomnia and promote healthy sleeping patterns. Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric diseases and mulungu offers novel therapy chance (Balbani et al., 2009; Patocka, 2009). Latest the present results suggest that Erythrina has anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors, particularly one that has been related in clinical terms to generalized anxiety. These observations support the popular use of extracts of the plant as tranquilizing agents.
Erythrina mulungu, tree high up to 10 m, is at home in South America. In Brasilia it is known as colorines, chilicote or tzompanquahuitl (Agra et al. 2007). In herbal medicine, a leaf or bark decoction or tincture from mulungu is considered to calm agitation and other disorders of the nervous system, including insomnia (Rodrigues and Carlini, 2003; Vasconcelos et al., 2007). Mulungu also decreased blood pressure and normalize heart arythmia (Begossi et al., 2004). There have also been some reports on the therapeutic use of the plant's inflorescence by herbal practitioners (Onusic et al. 2003). In Pre-Columbian civilizations decoction from the bark of this tree was used for suppression of fight fear and wartime hardship (Duke, 2008). At present, mulungu is used in the area of South America, mainly in Brasilia and Peru, as sedative and also in epilepsy (Teixeira-Silva et al., 2008).
People's healers and some practitioners in The United States use mulungu to quiet hysteria from trauma or shock, as a mild, hypnotic sedative to calm the nervous system, to treat insomnia and promote healthy sleeping patterns, to regulate heart palpitations, and to treat hepatitis and liver disorders. Nevertheless, despite its wide popular utilization, the supposed therapeutic properties of Erythrina mulungu only recently began to be evaluated in preclinical studies.
The chemicals constituents of mulungu have been studied extensively after modern medical science find health potential of this biomedicine. In this biological material have been found large amounts of novel flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids (Da-Cunha et al., 1996; Majinda et al., 2005; Cui et al., 2009). The genus Erythrina is very rich in secondary metabolites particularly of the flavonoids class. A literature survey showed the presence of flavanones, flavonols, chalcones, cinnamoylphenols, stilbenoids, isoflavones, isoflavans, isoflavanones, pterocarpans, isoflav-3-enes, 3-phenoxychromones, coumastans, 3-phenyl-coumarins, lignans, cinnamate esters, simple phenolics, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, long-chain carboxylic acids, and long-chain alcohols (Majinda et al., 2005). Flavonoids represent a group of very active chemicals with various properties and are almost always present in Erythrina species.
The most considerable group of biologicaly active compounds of mulungu are alkaloids (Ozawa et al. 2009). The alkaloids have been found in 78 of 107 species in the genus Erythrina; mulungu is documented with 20 isoquinoline alkaloids (Tanaka et al., 2008; Parsons and Palframan, 2010). The alkaloids accumulated not only at the end of maturation in the seeds but also in young tissues. On a dried basis, a high content of alkaloids was observed in flowers and dry seeds in comparison to low levels in dry pods. The highest concentrations were found in the mature seeds (García-Mateos et al., 1996). Many of these have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, cardioactive, narcotic, and sedative activities (Parsons and Palframan, 2010).
The pivotal structure of erythrinan alkaloids is tetraheterocyclic nitrogen compound with tetrahydroisoquinoline moiety called erythrinane (I) (Amer et al., 1991). Compounds of these structure were known for a long time (Koniuszy et al., 1949), but until medical science research of mulungu ignified concern over these alkaloids. Heft of erythrinan alkaloids are derivatives of I substituted at nucleus A and D by hydroxyl or alkoxy groups. The most considerable erythrinan alkaloids are erysotrine (II), erythravine (III), erysodine (IV), and erysopine (V) (Fig. 1) (Flausino et al., 2007a,b). For ever new erythrinan alkaloids are recovered (Tanaka et al., 2008; Cui et al., 2009, Parsons and Palframan, 2010).
The traditional use of mulungu for anxiety and stress has been validated by researchers in a few studies, where it was shown to alter anxiety-related responses (Flausino et al. 2007a,b). An animal model (correlating to human generalized anxiety disorder, as well as panic disorder) was undertaken on a water-alcohol extract of mulungu (Vasconcelos et al. 2004; Ribeiro et al. 2006; Flausino et al. 2007a). Vasconcelos and co-workers (2004) studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of both Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu on the behavior of female mice submitted to the open-field test and to the elevated plus-maze after oral or intraperitoneal administration. The highest doses (800 mg/kg, oral, and 400 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) of the hydroalcoholic extracts decreased locomotor activity both in the open-field and in the elevated plus-maze test. The authors concluded that these results supported, at least in part, the popular use of the two species of Erythrina as tranquilizers in Brazilian folk medicine. Another study (Dantas et al., 2004) performed with intraperitoneal administration of an aqueous Erythrina velutina extract showed that the extract prolonged the duration of sleep induced by sodium pentobarbital at higher doses and blocked the acquisition of foot shock memory at lower doses. These results led the authors to propose that Erythrina velutina might interfere with the mnemonic process and might have a sedative action (Dantas et al., 4004).
The researchers reported that the mulungu extract had an effect similar to the commonly-prescribed anti-anxiety drug diazepam (Onusic et al. 2003; Ribeiro et al. 2006; Teixeira-Silva et al. 2008). Raupp and co-workers (2008) administered orally the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem bark of Erythrina velutina in mice submitted to the following tests: elevated plus-maze, forced swim, spontaneous locomotor activity, and habituation to active chamber. Chlordiazepoxide and imipramine were used as standard drugs. In the elevated plus-maze test, chronic, but not acute, Erythrina velutina (100 mg/kg) administration increased the percentage of open arm entries, an effect also seen in both acute and chronic treatments with chlordiazepoxide (7.5 mg/kg). In the forced swim test, only imipramine (25 mg/kg) decreased immobility time. Impairment of habituation was seen only with acute imipramine administration and with the lowest doses of Erythrina velutina extract tested in acute (10 mg/kg) and chronic (50 mg/kg) administrations. These results suggest that chronic administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem bark of Erythrina velutina exerts an anxiolytic-like effect on mice, and it could serve as a new approach for the treatment anxiety, although it may have an amnesic effect at low doses. 041b061a72